Debian11.3 : WEB Server Apache Install

Web server Apache2 installation

Allow http:80 and https:443 ports in UFW before installation

# ufw allow http
# ufw allow https
# ufw reload

1 Apache2 Installation and Configuration


# apt -y install apache2

2.Basic Apache2 Configuration

# vi /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/security.conf
# Line 25:change
ServerTokens  Prod
# vi /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf
# Line 2:Check file names accessible by directory name only
DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.php index.xhtml i ndex.htm
# vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
# Line 70:Server name added
ServerName <own domain name>
# Line 172:change
AllowOverride ALL
# vi /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf
# Line 11:Administrator address change
ServerAdmin <your mailaddress>
Restart Apache
# systemctl restart apache2

3. Apache2; Using Perl Scripts

Enable CGI to make Perl scripts available
①Install Perl

# apt -y install perl

②Enable CGI module and restart

# a2enmod cgid
# systemctl restart apache2

③Check the validity of CGI modules
Create test scripts

# cat > /usr/lib/cgi-bin/test_script << 'EOF'
print "Content-type: text/html\n\n" ;
print "Hello CGI\n ;

Authorize script files

# chmod 705 /usr/lib/cgi-bin/test_script

operation check

# curl http://localhost/cgi-bin/test_script
If you get a "curl: command not found" message
# apt install curl
# curl http://localhost/cgi-bin/test_script
Hello CGI

4 Apache2 : Using PHP Scripts

①Install PHP

# apt -y install php php-cgi libapache2-mod-php php-common php-pear php-mbstring

②Apache2 Configuration

# a2enconf php7.4-cgi
Enabling conf php7.4-cgi.
To activate the new configuration, you need to run:
systemctl reload apache2
# vi /etc/php/7.4/apache2/php.ini
# Line 846 change
#upload_max_filesize = 2M
upload_max_filesize = 200M
Line 962:Uncomment and set time zone
date.timezone = “Asia/Tokyo”

③Create a PHP test page and check its operation

# vi /var/www/html/index.php
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

OK if the following screen is displayed


5. Virtual Host Settings

Copy the default configuration file (file name is arbitrary, in this case vhost-yourdomain.conf as an example) and configure the virtual host

# cd /etc/apache2/sites-available/
# cp 000-default.conf vhost-yourdomain.conf

Edit configuration file

# vi vhost-yourdomain.conf
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerName <own domain name>
ServerAdmin <Administrator's email address>
DocumentRoot /var/www/html/<own domain name>/
ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/<own domain name>.error.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/<own domain name>.access.log combined

Symbolic link to the configuration file to disable the default configuration file

# cd /etc/apache2/sites-available/
# a2ensite vhost-yourdomain.conf
# a2dissite 000-default.conf  Default Disable Apache Restart
# systemctl restart apache2

Edit hosts file

# vi /etc/hosts <own domain name>

directory creation

# mkdir /var/www/html/<own domain name>

Create test pages and check operation

# vi /var/www/html/<own domain name>/index.html
<div style="width: 100%; font-size: 40px; font-weight: bold; text-align: center;">
Virtual Host Test Page

Access "http://<own domain name>/index.html" with a browser to check

6.Digest authentication with Apache2

Since Basic Authentication, a well-known authentication authorization method for http, sends authentication information in plain text, there is a risk of ID and password leakage if the packet is intercepted.
On the other hand, Digest Authentication encrypts and transmits authentication information, so there is almost no risk of information leakage.

6.1 Create password file for Digest authentication

Specify an authenticated area called realm. This realm allows the same directory to be accessed as authenticated.
As an example, we will create a user named "secretuser" with "DigestAuth" as the realm. Execute the following command and enter the password for "secretuser" when prompted.

# /usr/bin/htdigest -c /etc/apache2/.digestauth "DigestAuth" secretuser


# cat /etc/apache2/.digestauth

As above, secretuser and encrypted password are created

6.2 Edit Apache configuration file

Specify the directory to which Digest authentication will be applied. (In this case, specify the secret directory.)

# vi /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

Add the following at the end

<Directory /var/www/html/secret>
AuthType Digest
AuthName "DigestAuth"
AuthDigestDomain /secret/
AuthUserFile /etc/apache2/.digestauth
Require valid-user

Enable Digest authentication and reboot

# a2enmod auth_digest
# systemctl restart apache2

When accessing http://<domain name>/ with a browser, a screen appears asking for "user name" and "password".