- 1.Debian 10 Overview
- 2.Downloading Debian installation images
- 3.Debian 10 Installation
- 3.1.Installation screen
- 3.2.Select the installation language
- 3.3.Selecting a location
- 3.4. Keyboard settings
- 3.5. Adding a package
- 3.6. Network Settings
- 3.7. Setting up users and passwords
- 3.8. Partitioning the disk.
- 3.9. Configure the package manager
- 3.10. Setting up popularity-contest
- 3.11. Selecting software
- 3.12. Install the boot loader
1.Debian 10 Overview
In this article, I will explain how to build a server with Debian, which is the basis of UBUNTU, a user-friendly Linux distribution.
Debian has been upgraded to a major version in July 2019. (As of January 2020, 10.2 is the latest version.) So far, Series 9 was the latest stable version, but from now on, Debian 10 (codename buster) will be the latest stable version.
Debian 10 will be stable, which means it is the version that will provide 5 years of LTS (Long Term Support) starting in 2019 until July 2024.
This time we will install it without the desktop environment.
[Note: Debian 11 “bullseye” was released on 14.8.2021, and Debian 10.xx is no longer available for download from the official Debian website, so please download it from one of the following mirrors
2.Downloading Debian installation images
Debian 10 download mirror sites
Switzerland: debian.ethz.ch: HTTP
Please access the mirror site above and download “debian-10.10.0-amd64-netinst.iso”, which is convenient for setup when you are connected to the Internet. (It will fit on one CD)
NETINST allows you to download and install the necessary packages from the Internet, so you can use a smaller installer (about 336MB for v10.10) compared to the full installer.
Click on the following screens in the order shown.
3.Debian 10 Installation
Change the BIOS so that the PC can boot from the installation disk created above, and then boot the PC.
Select “Graphical install” from the screen that appears.
3.2.Select the installation language
3.3.Selecting a location
3.4. Keyboard settings
Configure the keyboard settings to be used by the system. Select the keyboard of the language you want to use from the keymap.
Here, you can set the keyboard layout. If you have selected “Japan” in “Select a location” above, Japanese is automatically displayed. If the displayed layout is Japanese, there is no need to change it.
3.5. Adding a package
After you finish configuring the keyboard, it will start adding the missing packages. The addition will be completed automatically.
3.6. Network Settings
After specifying the language and region, you will need to configure the network settings, since Debian 10 does not allow you to specify a fixed local address at the time of installation and the network is assumed to be running on a DHCP server. The fixed IP address can be specified via commands after installation.
3.6.1.Setting the host name
Set up a hostname for your Debian system. By default, “debian” is specified, but you can use any name you like, for example “Lion”.
3.6.2. Domain Name
Set the domain name. The setting value is arbitrary. In this case, we will set “korodes.com”.
3.7. Setting up users and passwords
3.7.1 Setting the root password
Set the password for the system administrator (root user).
The root owns full access rights to the system. Enter the password in the “Password for root” field displayed on the screen.
3.7.2 General User Settings
Once you have finished setting the root password, you can then set the general user (non-administrative privileges) for non-root operations. Enter the real name (full name) of the user. We have entered “test-user”.
Enter the password to be set for the user. Enter the same one twice.
Click “Continue” to complete the creation of the general user and proceed with the installation process. The user created here will be used for normal operation.
The installation process will proceed. Once the network is enabled, the time will be set.
3.8. Partitioning the disk.
3.8.1 Partitioning the disk.
Configure the partitioning (logical division) of the disks on which the Debian system will be installed. There are four methods of partitioning.
- Guide – Using an Entire Disk
- Guide – Setting up LVM using a whole disk
- Guide – Setting Up Encrypted LVM Using Entire Disk
- manual (operation)
This time we will use “Use entire disk”.
3.8.2 Selecting a disk
Select the disk on which you want to partition; the disks on which Debian can be installed will be displayed. For a single disk, the disk shown will be selected automatically.
3.8.3 Configure auto-configuration partitions
Choose how you want to partition the selected disk. In this case, we will choose “All files in one partition (recommended for novice users)”. one partition will consist of only the “/(root)” partition.
3.8.4 Confirmation of writing to the disk
You will be asked to confirm before splitting the partitions. Select “Yes”.
An overview of the partitions and mount points will be displayed. Select “Yes”.
3.9. Configure the package manager
This section describes the basic configuration of “apt”, the package manager used in Debian. to download packages and information from the Internet with apt, you need to specify the archive mirror or location to download to.
For use in Japan, it is better to choose a mirror with “.jp”.
3.9.1 Confirm the CD/DVD to be managed by the package manager.
Check the CD/DVD to be used for installation, and if there are additional disks used by the package manager, you can inspect them. You can also check if there are any additional disks used by the package manager; select “No” here, since NETINST is a minimal configuration and additional disks will be downloaded from the Internet.
3.9.2 Selecting an archive mirror
An archive mirror is like a CentOS repository, and is where you get packages with apt. When downloading software from the network, select the location closest to the network. Select “Japan” for a system that will be deployed in “Japan”.
This time, we will proceed with the default values without setting them.
3.9.3 Proxy Settings
If you are using a proxy server to connect to the Internet, you can configure the proxy server setting information here. Since you will not be using it this time, click “Continue” without making any settings.
Continue to get information from the mirror and configure the apt settings.
3.10. Setting up popularity-contest
popularity- contest is a system to provide statistics of packages used anonymously to debian developers. This is a feature to be used as a reference for designing packages for the debian distribution in the future. You can set “No” or “Yes” freely.
3.11. Selecting software
This is the screen for selecting the debian software to install. By default, the items in the following screen are selected.
Since we will not be installing a desktop environment, we will select the following two options
SSH Server Standard System Utilities
The software installation will begin.
3.12. Install the boot loader
If there is only one OS to be installed on the hard disk, install the boot loader.
In this environment, there is no other OS installed on the hard disk, so select “Yes” for “Do you want to install the GRUB boot loader on the master boot record? select “Yes”.
Select the installation destination for the boot loader. Usually, the installation destination is displayed, so there is no need to select it manually. In this example, we will select “/dev/sda” which is displayed.
When the installation is complete, you will see the “Installation Complete” screen. This means that debian 10 is now installed on your system. If you click “Continue”, the system will start rebooting.
Remove the installation media and check the BIOS to boot from the installed disk (HD or SSD), then reboot, and you will see the login prompt. The system is now ready to boot.